Virtual Museum of Canada (VMC)

Reports And Articles

This page presents a list of many of the reports and articles that have been produced about Sq’éwlets history, archaeology, and heritage. All of the materials below can be found in the Stó:lō Library and Archives, Stó:lō Resource Centre, Chilliwack, B.C. Many of them can be downloaded from the online archives as PDFs. Find them at:

Published Articles:

Blake, Michael, Gary Coupland and Brian Thom. Dating the Scowlitz site. The Midden, Vol 25, no. 1, 1993.

Blake, Michael. Fraser Valley trade and prestige as seen from Scowlitz. In Complex hunter-gatherers: evolution and organization of prehistoric communities of the plateau of northwestern North America. Ed. By William C. Prentiss and Ian Kujit, pp. 103-112. University of Utah, Salt Lake, 2007.

Carlson, Keith Thor. You are asked to witness: The Stó:lō in Canada's Pacific Coast history. Chilliwack, B.C.: Stó:lō Heritage Trust, 1997.

Carlson, Keith Thor, Colin Duffield, Albert (Sonny) McHalsie, Leanna Lynn Rhodes, David M. Schaepe, and David A. Smith. A Stó:lō-Coast Salish Historical Atlas. Vancouver: Douglas & McIntyre, 2001.

Duff, Wilson. The Upper Stalo Indians of the Fraser River of B.C. B.C. Provincial Museum, 1952.

Hill-Tout, Charles. Ethnological report on the Stseelis and Skaulits tribes of the Halkomelem division of the Salish of British Columbia. Tenth Report on the N.W. Tribes of Canada. 1985.

Lepofsky, Dana, Michael Blake, Douglas Brown, Sandra Morrison, Nicole Oakes, and Natasha Lyons. The archaeology of the Scowlitz site, SW British Columbia in Journal of Field Archaeology, v. 27, n. 4, 2000.

Lepofsky, D., David Schaepe, Anthony Graesch, Michael Lenert, Patricia Ormerod, Keith Carlson, Jeanne Arnold, Michael Blake, Patrick Moore, and John Clague. Exploring Stó:lō-Coast Salish Interaction and Identity in Ancient Houses and Settlements in the Fraser Valley, British Columbia in American Antiquity v. 74, n. 4, 2009.

Lyons, Natasha. The 1997 SFU field season at Scowlitz. The Midden, vol. 23, no. 3. 1997.

Natasha Lyons, Dave Schaepe, Kate Hennessy, Mike Blake, Clarence Pennier, John Welch, Kyle McIntosh, Andy Phillips, Betty Charlie, Clifford Hall, Lucille Hall, Aynur Kadir, Alicia Point, Vi Pennier, Reginald Phillips, Reese Muntean, Johnny Williams Jr., John Williams Sr., Joseph Chapman and Colin Pennier. Being Sq’éwlets: An Ontology of the Sq’éwlets Website Project. Journal of Social Archaeology 16(3):

Lyons, Natasha, Andy Phillips, Dave Schaepe, Betty Charlie, Clifford Hall, and Kate Hennessy. The Scowlitz Site online: launch of the Scowlitz artifact assemblage project. The Midden, v. 43, no. 2, 2011.

Maud, Ralph (editor). The Salish People: The local contribution of Charles Hill-Tout: Vol. III: The Mainland Halkomelem. Vancouver: Talonbooks, 1978.

Morrison, Sandra and Heather Myles. The Sacred mounds of Scowlitz. The Midden, v. 24, n. 4, 1992.

Pennier, Henry. Call me Hank: A Stó:lō man’s reflections on logging, living and growing old. University of Toronto, 2006.

Pennier, Henry. Chiefly Indian: The Warm and witty story of a British Columbia half-breed logger. Graydonald Graphics, 1972.

Sleigh, Daphne. The People of the Harrison. 1990.

Wooten, Kimberly. From the Scowlitz Site: A basket case. The Midden v. 24, no. 4, 1992.

Theses and Dissertations:

Lyons, Natasha. Investigating ancient socioeconomy in Stó:lō territory. A palaeoethnobotanical analysis of the Scowlitz site, Southwestern B.C. Burnaby, BC. Simon Fraser University, 2000.

Morrison, Sandra Lynne. Household archaeology at the Scowlitz site, Fraser Valley, B.C. Vancouver: UBC, 1997.

Schaepe, David. Pre-colonial Stó:lō-Coast Salish community organization: an archaeological study. University of British Columbia, 2009.

Thom, Brian. The dead and the living: Burial mounds and cairns and the development of social classes in the Gulf of Georgia region. University of British Columbia, 1995.

Non-published reports and materials:

Baker, Ben Clinton. Grand Chief Clarence “Kat” Pennier: A life in leadership. Ethnohistory Field School, 2011.

Bellissimo, Stephanie. Scowlitz: A preliminary history. Ethnohistory Field School, 2011.

Bernick, Kathryn. Waterlogged deposits at the Scowlitz Site. Stó:lō Heritage Inspection Permit 1992-003 and 1993-003; B.C. Site Investigation Permit 1992-117. 1994.

Blake, Michael. Interim report on the 1992 excavations at the Scowlitz site (DhRl 16). 1995. Stó:lō Heritage Inspection Permit 1992-003; B.C. Permit 1992-045.

Brown, Doug. Geomorphological history of the Scowlitz wet site DhRl 16-W. 1993.

Brown, Douglas and Dana Lepofsky. Report on the 1997 excavations at the Scowlitz Site (DhRl16) Fraser Valley, B.C. 1998. Stó:lō Heritage Inspection Permit 1997-006. B.C. Permit 1997-080.

Duff, Wilson. Report on archaeological survey of Hope-Chilliwack area. Unpub. Ms., copy on file at Stó:lō Archives. 1949.

Galloway, Brent. Stó:lō geographical place names file. 1977.

Grant, Tara. The Basketry and cordage from the Scowlitz site: Treatment summary. 1994.

Keresztesi, Orion. A Preliminary history of Sq’éwlets Reserve boundaries. Ethnohistory Field School, 2013.

Lepofsky, Dana. Report on the 1998 excavations at the Scowlitz Site (DhRl 16) Fraser Valley, B.C. 1999. Stó:lō Heritage Inspection Permit 1998-012. B.C. Permit 1998-103.

Lepofsky, Dana et al. Report on the 1999 excavations at the Scowlitz Site (DhRl 16) Fraser Valley, B.C. 2000. Stó:lō Heritage Investigation Permit 1999-016. B.C. Permit 1999-117.

Lyons, Natasha and Nicole Oakes. Scowlitz Archaeological Times. 1999.

Matson, R.G. Report on the 1993 excavations at Scowlitz. 1994. Stó:lō Heritage Investigation Permit 1993-004. B.C. Permit 1993-45.

McHalsie, Sonny, et al. Halq’eméylem place names for the Stó:lō Curriculum Consortium. 1996.
FC3809 M149 see also S’ólh Téméxw: Stó:lō place names photographs for the 92 G/1 and 92 /g/2 areas, 1995.

Morrison, Sandra, Heather Myles and Brian Thom. Report on the excavations at the Spirit Camp Site (DhRl 25). 1994.

Oakes, Nicole. AIA of Scowlitz woodlot, 1435 Mt. Woodside and Scowlitz I.R. 1, Scowlitz Indian Band. 2003. Stó:lō Heritage Inspection Permit 2002-028. BC Permit 2002-173.

Oakes, Nicole. Preliminary report on 1997 archaeological reconnaissance near Harrison Mills, southwester British Columbia. 1998. Stó:lō Heritage Inspection Permit 1997-014. BC Permit 1997-014.

Oakes, Nicole and Doug Brown. Archaeological mitigation of an earthen burial mound, undertaken for the Scowlitz First Nation at Sqawkum Creek I.R. 3, southwestern British Columbia. 2001. Stó:lō Heritage Permit 2000-045.

Schaepe, Dave, Blake, Mike, Formosa, Sue, & Lepofsky, Dana. Mapping and Testing Precontact Stó:lō Settlements in the Fraser Canyon and Fraser Valley (2004-2005). 2006.

Simonds, S.B. Report on Subdivision of Harrison Mills Indian Reserve no. 1, RG10, Vol. 4089, File 521,240 available online at LAC MIKAN no. 2060504. No date.

Thorogood, Paula, Douglas Brown, Barbara Winter. Report on the recovery and conservation of a basket fragment from the Scowlitz archaeological site (DhRl 16) in the eastern Fraser Valley. 2003. Stó:lō Heritage Investigation Permit 2003-006; Chehalis Indian Band Cultural Heritage Resources Investigation Permit 2003-001; B.C. Permit 2003-095.

Washbrook, Kevin. Stó:lō ethnobotany for the Scowlitz and Soowahlie sites. UBC Anthropology Field School, 1994.


1864 A Rough diagram shewing the portion of the Reserves laid off for Government purposes & on the Fraser, Chillukweyak, Sumass and Masquee Rivers. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Office of Surveyor General, Survey Plans Vault, Victoria, IR 31T1.

1868 Scowlitz Reserve drawn by Mr. Launders (surveyor).

1881 Rough Plan of Scowlitz I.R. 1 and I.R. 2 as allotted by O’Reilly.

1884 Squawkum Creek I.R. 3. Federal Collection, Vol. 10, Files 70 -80.

Genealogical Records:

Genealogical records are maintained and can be accessed in the Stó:lō Genealogical Office at the Stó:lō Resource Centre.

Photographs, Interviews:

Archival documents, including photographs and interview records, are maintained and may be accessed in the Stó:lō Archives at the Stó:lō Resource Centre.